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Development of smart contracts and creating tokens on Ethereum, buying and selling ETH, other consulting.

Page last updated: October 1, 2020

Learn about Ethereum

Welcome to, a set of resources to help you learn more about Ethereum. This page includes technical and non-technical articles, guides, and resources. If you’re totally new to Ethereum, we suggest you start here.

Here are some excellent starting points:

In addition to the information on this page, there are many community-built resources worth exploring:

How Ethereum works

High-level explanations of Ethereum and blockchain technology generally.

Smart Contracts

A “smart contract” is simply a piece of code that is running on Ethereum. It’s called a “contract” because code that runs on Ethereum can control valuable things like ETH or other digital assets.

Proof of Work and Mining

Ethereum currently uses a system called "Proof of Work". This allows the Ethereum network to agree on the state of all information recorded on the Ethereum blockchain, and prevents certain kinds of economic attacks.

You can learn more about proof of work and mining within our developer documentation.

In ETH 2.0, Ethereum will be moving to a different system called "Proof of Stake". Read more about ETH 2.0 below.

Clients and Nodes

The Ethereum network is made up of many nodes, each of which runs compatible client software.

You can learn how to run a node of your own or find a comprehensive list of all Ethereum clients within our developer documentation.

Enterprise Ethereum

Enterprise Ethereum refers to private, consortium, and hybrid implementations of the Ethereum codebase for business applications. Companies across the globe are already using Enterprise Ethereum to streamline financial markets, manage supply chains, and create new business models.

Read more about Enterprise Ethereum.

Improving Ethereum’s Scalability

There are many efforts underway to make Ethereum more “scalable” by improving its speed and overall transaction throughput. Generally these are sorted into “Layer 1” and “Layer 2” solutions.

“Layer 1” refers to improving the core Ethereum protocol. The primary project to improve Ethereum’s core protocol is ETH 2.0.

“Layer 2” refers to technologies that are built “on top” of the base Ethereum protocol, enabling greater scalability without compromising on security. There are also “off-chain” technologies like side-chains, which enable greater scalability by making a different set of security tradeoffs.

Payment & State Channels




Eth2 (also known as “Serenity”) refers to the next major upgrade of the core Ethereum protocol. It combines several improvements to Ethereum’s core protocol, or “Layer 1”.

Learn everything you need to know about Eth2.

ETH 1.x

ETH 1.x is the name for a collection of upgrades to the existing Ethereum protocol. The goal is to continue to improve and maintain Ethereum while ETH 2.0 is developed and implemented.

For more information, see EthHub’s explainer page about ETH 1.x


“Cryptoeconomics” is the practical science of building distributed systems, where properties of those systems are secured by financial incentives, and where the economic mechanisms are guaranteed by cryptography. It is the general term for the practice of designing and scaling blockchains like Ethereum and Bitcoin.

Critique and skepticism

Critical views of Ethereum and Cryptocurrencies.